Appearing four months after Charles Darwin 's On the Origin of Species ,  it summed up a three-quarter-century-long challenge to biblical history by the higher critics and to biblical prehistory by scientists working in the new fields of geology and biology.
Baden Powell restated his argument that God is a lawgiver, miracles break the lawful edicts issued at the creation, therefore belief in miracles is atheistic, and wrote of "Mr Darwin's masterly volume" that the Origin of Species "must soon bring about an entire revolution in opinion in favour of the grand principle of the self-evolving powers of nature.
At a deeper level, it marked the exhaustion both of the Broad Church and of Anglican orthodoxy and the commencement of an era of religious doubt. The essay "On the interpretation of scripture" was contributed by Benjamin Jowett. When asked to contribute, Jowett saw the opportunity to challenge traditionalists. Jowett was a proponent of progressive revelation.
The books of the Bible written later were seen to be closer to the ultimate revelation of God as seen in Jesus Christ as revealed in the Gospels.
The epistles and other New Testament writings were seen to look back. The implication of Jowett's essay and his other writings — that revelation was ongoing and that scripture was always subject to reinterpretation as each generation encountered them — was the target of his traditionalist foes. Jowett felt he was being slandered for his honesty concerning his beliefs but he suffered no actual penalty other than an infamously low salary at Christ Church, Oxford.
However, in Jowett was brought before the vice-chancellor's court for teaching contrary to the doctrines of the Church of England; the case was eventually dropped.
Hardly known outside academic theological circles today, Essays sold 22, copies in two years, more than Origin sold in its first twenty years.
It sparked five years of increasingly polarized debate with books and pamphlets furiously contesting the issues. A review by Frederic Harrison published in the Westminster Review in October  had the probably undesired effect of stimulating the attack on the book. In January , an anonymous review was published in the Quarterly Review. The Quarterly review was followed up by a letter to The Times co-signed by the Archbishop of Canterbury and 25 bishops which threatened the theologians with the ecclesiastical courts.
Darwin quoted a proverb: Despite this alignment of pro-evolution scientists and Unitarians with liberal churchmen, Williams and Wilson were charged with heresy in the Court of Arches. In it overturned the convictions, with the Archbishops of Canterbury and York dissenting in part though the Bishop of London concurred in the decision.
It was said that the Privy Council had "dismissed hell with costs". One hundred and thirty-seven thousand laity signed a letter of thanks to the Archbishops of Canterbury and York for voting against the Committee, and a declaration in favour of biblical inspiration and eternal torments was drawn up at Oxford and circulated to the 24, clergy, being signed by eleven thousand of them.
Wilberforce went to the Convocation of Canterbury and in June obtained "synodical condemnation" of Essays and Reviews. Today the essay topics and conclusions may seem innocuous, but at the time, the essays were described by their opponents as heretical , and the essayists were called "The Seven Against Christ. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Responses to "Essays and Reviews", ". The Power of Place. Desmond, Adrian ; Moore, James There is no way a top essay writing service can host writers who are not qualified academically and professionally.
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