Questionnaires, observations, content analyses and experiments are all ways to gather primary data. Secondary data have already been gathered by someone and are used by someone else for further research. For example, government statistics from a census can inform researchers about the number of females living alone. A meta-analysis, in which researchers pool data on a particular topic, uses secondary data because the data studied are not gathered first hand.
Primary and secondary data can be compared in terms of cost one is relatively more expensive than the other , validity one is more valid, perhaps and strength of the conclusions one is more trust-worthy and credible. Primary data may be more recently gathered than secondary data.
Primary data are expensive to obtain because each researcher or research team has to start from the beginning of a study and follow the whole study through, including finding participants, organising materials and running the study.
Secondary data are cheaper because they already exist. Primary data are gathered first hand, following careful operationalisation of variables and using carefully chosen procedures. Operationalising the IV the variable being manipulated is done so that it represents what is to be measured in general, therefore primary data should be valid because the study is designed and carried out for the main purpose of the research.
Secondary data, on the other hand, are likely to have been gathered for some other purpose or for an unclear purpose. Often secondary data have already been analysed, which can bring in an element of subjectivity. If secondary data gathered for one purpose are used for another they may not be valid for the second purpose. Primary data might be considered to be more trustworthy, in that they have greater validity than secondary data. If they are collected objectively, with careful planning and sampling, controls in place and other features of methodology adhered to, then they are likely to be scientifically gathered for the stated aim of the study.
This means that they are more credible. If, however, data gathered for one purpose are used for a different purpose or aim, then this use of secondary data might lack credibility. Primary data are likely to be gathered at the time of the study and conclusions will be drawn then. Secondary data , however, might have been gathered some time ago.
Data collection plays a very crucial role in the statistical analysis. In research, there are different methods used to gather information, all of which fall into two categories, i.
As the name suggests, primary data is one which is collected for the first time by the researcher while secondary data is the data already collected or produced by others. There are many differences between primary and secondary data, which are discussed in this article. But the most important difference is that primary data is factual and original whereas secondary data is just the analysis and interpretation of the primary data. While primary data is collected with an aim for getting solution to the problem at hand, secondary data is collected for other purposes.
Basis for Comparison Primary Data Secondary Data Meaning Primary data refers to the first hand data gathered by the researcher himself. Secondary data means data collected by someone else earlier. Data Real time data Past data Process Very involved Quick and easy Source Surveys, observations, experiments, questionnaire, personal interview, etc. Government publications, websites, books, journal articles, internal records etc.
May or may not be specific to the researcher's need. Primary data is data originated for the first time by the researcher through direct efforts and experience, specifically for the purpose of addressing his research problem. Also known as the first hand or raw data. Primary data collection is quite expensive, as the research is conducted by the organisation or agency itself, which requires resources like investment and manpower.
The data collection is under direct control and supervision of the investigator. The data can be collected through various methods like surveys, observations, physical testing, mailed questionnaires, questionnaire filled and sent by enumerators, personal interviews, telephonic interviews, focus groups, case studies, etc.
Secondary data implies second-hand information which is already collected and recorded by any person other than the user for a purpose, not relating to the current research problem. It is the readily available form of data collected from various sources like censuses, government publications, internal records of the organisation, reports, books, journal articles, websites and so on.
Secondary data offer several advantages as it is easily available, saves time and cost of the researcher. But there are some disadvantages associated with this, as the data is gathered for the purposes other than the problem in mind, so the usefulness of the data may be limited in a number of ways like relevance and accuracy. Moreover, the objective and the method adopted for acquiring data may not be suitable to the current situation.
Therefore, before using secondary data, these factors should be kept in mind.
Data collection plays a very crucial role in the statistical analysis. In research, there are different methods used to gather information, all of which fall into two categories, i.e. primary data, and secondary data.
Data collection is a process of collecting information from all the relevant sources to find answers to the research problem, test the hypothesis and evaluate the outcomes. Data collection methods can be divided into two categories: secondary methods of data collection and primary methods of data.
Methods of Data Collection- Primary and Secondary Data There are two types of data Primary Data and Secondary Data → igmosb.gqy Data → Raw data or primary data is a term for data . that secondary data analysis is a viable method to utilize in the process of inquiry when a systematic procedure is followed and presents an illustrative research application utilizing secondary data analysis in library and information science research.
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