Three Korean companies supply more than 40 percent of the global demand for computer memory chips. The Korean automobile and petrochemicals industries rank fifth in the world in terms of production.
The economy is export-oriented and at the same time heavily dependent on overseas raw materials. Korea ranked twelfth for exports and fourteenth for imports among the countries in the world.
The major trading partners are the United States and Japan. Since the s, main export items have included computers, semiconductors, automobiles, steel, shipbuilding, electronic goods, machinery, textiles, and fishery products.
Overseas construction is a critical source of foreign currency and invisible export earnings. Major import items are steel, chemicals, timber and pulp, cereals, petroleum and petroleum products, and electronics and electrical equipment. Leading chaebol companies such as Hyundai, Samsung, and the LG Group recruit white-collar workers from among college graduates through the kongch'ae system an open competitive A farmer hauls rice on his back in Pong Hwang, Naju, South Korea.
Rice is a staple of the South Korean diet. Smaller companies often rely on social connections to hire employees. For executive and upper-level management jobs, companies may scout the desired personnel by using a variety of means, including professional headhunting services. Employment in the civil service, which is based on a grade system, reflects a strong tradition of seniority.
Positions are assigned strictly according to grade, and remuneration is based on grade and length of service. Recruitment from outside is allowed only at certain grade levels through the civil service examination system, with age limitations that favor the young. Vacant positions, except at the lowest grade level, are filled mostly by promotions based on seniority.
The tradition of seniority, however, is being challenged as part of the wide-ranging restructuring taking place in the public sector as well as in the financial and corporate sectors as a result of the economic crisis. The traditional gentry yangban status was formally abolished by the Kabo Reforms of , but the legacy of the class system is seen in social psychological and behavioral patterns.
In , 60 percent of South Koreans regarded themselves as belonging to the middle class. The subjective perception of one's class position was closely correlated with one's level of educational attainment.
Eighty-three percent of those with a college education perceived themselves as belonging to the middle class, compared with 41 percent of those with a primary school education. In general, industrialization and urbanization have contributed to a leveling of the nonkin hierarchy in social life, but the income gap between the working classes and the industrialist class as a new power elite has grown. Family background, education, occupation, and the general acceptance of a meritocracy are major social factors that contribute to the unequal distribution of wealth by class.
Symbols of Social Stratification. Major symbols of social status include the size of one's condominium or house, the location of one's residence, chauffeur-driven large automobiles, style and quality of dress, membership in a golf club, and the use of honorifics in speech. According to the government classification, residential space between eighteen and People in the middle and upper-middle classes tend to live in apartment units of over thirty p'yong.
The precise number of p'yong of one's condominium often is interpreted as a barometer of one's wealth. Academic degrees such as a doctorate and professional occupations such as medicine also symbolize higher social status.
Koreans lived under a dynastic system until After liberation from Japanese colonization in , the southern half of the peninsula was occupied by the United States and the northern half by the Soviet military until , when two Koreas emerged. Since then, South Korea has traveled a rocky road in its political development from autocratic governments to a more democratic state, amending its constitution nine times in the wake of tumultuous political events such as the Korean War, the April Revolution of , the and military coups, the Kwangju uprising, and the democracy movement.
The government has maintained a presidential system except in —, when a parliamentary system was in place. Government power is shared by three branches: The executive branch under the president as the head of state consists of the prime minister, the State Council, seventeen executive ministries, seventeen independent agencies, the Board of Inspection and Audit, and the National Intelligence Service.
The president is elected by popular vote for a single five-year term. The prime minister is appointed by the president with the approval of the National Assembly. The legislature consists of a single-house National Assembly whose members serve four-year terms. Some degree of local autonomy was restored for the first time since by the implementation of local assembly elections in and popular elections of the heads of provincial and municipal governments in The judiciary has three tiers of courts: Leadership and Political Officials.
Political parties have been organized primarily around a leader instead of a platform. The hometown and school ties of the founding leader of a party have often influenced voting patterns, contributing to emotional regionalism among voters as well as politicians.
Kim win the election. The socalled DJP alliance, named for the coalition of Kim Dae-jung and Prime Minister Kim Jong-pil, promised to change the executive branch into a cabinet system with the prime minister as the head of state. The constitutional amendment for a parliamentary government thus has become a major political issue in the Kim Dae-jung administration. Social Problems and Control.
According to the National Statistical Office, the number of reported major penal code offenses was per , in , and the most common crime was theft. Since the s, sexual violence against women has drawn public concern, and legislation to deal with it was enacted in the s. Public prosecutors and the police are authorized to conduct investigations of criminal acts, but theoretically, police authority to investigate criminal acts is subject to the direction and. The National Police Agency is under the authority of the Ministry of Government Administration and Home Affairs, while the Supreme Public Prosecutor's Office, the penal administration, and other legal affairs are supervised by the Ministry of Justice.
The supreme prosecutor general is appointed by the president. Historically, the executive branch exercised great influence on judicial decisions. There is no jury system. Cases that involve offenses punishable by the death penalty, life imprisonment, or imprisonment for more than one year are tried by three judges of a district or branch court; other cases are heard by a single judge. Since then, the armed forces have grown to be the largest and most influential government organization.
According to the Defense White Paper, the nation has , troops. The defense expenditure accounted for about 15 percent of the national government budget.
Weapons and equipment modernization and the operational costs of the three armed services and the armed forces reserves are the main items in the defense budget.
Based on the Korean-American Mutual Defense Treaty, the two countries hold the joint exercise Team Spirit every spring to promote military cooperation and readiness. The Korean peninsula is the world's most densely armed zone with over 1. Much progress has been made in the area of social welfare since the s, especially in the health care system. The National Health Insurance Program, which started in with coverage of less than 10 percent of the population, covered the entire population by The government also enacted the National Health Program Law and the Mental Health Law in to promote health education, antismoking campaigns, and the improvement of the civil rights of the mentally ill.
The budget of the Ministry of Health and Welfare has been growing rapidly. Until the late s, civil organizations generally developed in opposition to the government and contributed to democratization. In the past decade, nongovernmental organizations NGOs have increased in numbers and services. Since its formation in , Chongdaehyop has achieved remarkable success in bringing to the attention of the world community the "comfort women" who served Japanese troops before and during World War II.
Its activities have improved the living conditions of the surviving victims and strengthened feminist human rights movement. Many Christian church supported NGOs send missionaries and provide on-site aid in Africa and other regions. Division of Labor by Gender. Gender and age have been the two fundamental influences in patterns of social organization. Housework is most commonly regarded as women's work even when a woman works outside the home.
Industrialization and democratization have given women more opportunities to play diverse roles in public life, but the basic structure of a gender division of labor is observable in public life. As of April , Women's average earnings were In June , there was one woman among seventeen cabinet members and no woman vice minister. Women as professional leaders in religious life are limited in numbers in both Christian churches and Buddhist temples.
The exception to this pattern is seen in shamanism, in which women dominate as priestesses. The Relative Status of Women and Men. The constitution stipulates equality of all citizens before the law, but the norms and values that guide gender relations in daily life continue to be influenced by an ideology of male superiority. The interplay between these gender role ideologies complicates the patterns and processes of social change in the area of gender role performance and the relative status of women and men.
One of the consequences of these dual gender role ideologies is the behavioral pattern that compartmentalize the social arena into public versus private spheres and formal versus informal situations within each sphere of social action. The patriarchal gender role ideology tends to guide people's behavior at group levels in public informal situations as well as private formal situations.
Democratic egalitarianism is more readily practiced at the societal level in public, informal situations, and at the individual level in private, informal situations. Thus, a woman can and did run for the presidency, but women are expected to behave in a submissive manner in public, informal gatherings such as dinner parties among professional colleagues. In private, informal situations such as family affairs, however, urban middle-class husbands tend to leave the decision making to their wives.
Nonetheless, male authority as the household head hoju is socially expected and the law favors husbands and sons over wives and daughters. The main sources of social change in gender status have been the women's movement and the role of the state in legislating to protect women's rights and improve their status. In response to feminist activism, some men organized the first National Men's Association in Complaining of reverse sexism, they asserted that laws enacted to prevent domestic violence and sexual harassment unfairly favor women and vowed to campaign to abolish the exclusively male duties of military service so that both sexes may shoulder the duties of national defense.
Family background and educational level are important considerations in matchmaking. Marriage between people with a common surname and origin place tongsong tongbon was prohibited by law until Many urbanites find their spouse at schools or workplaces and have a love marriage.
Others may find partners through arranged meetings made by parents, relatives, friends, and professional matchmakers. In urban centers, the arranged meeting often takes place in a hotel coffee shop where the man, the woman, and their parents may meet for the first time.
After exchanging greetings and some conversation, the parents leave so that the couple can talk and decide whether they would like to see each other again. Most individuals have freedom in choosing a marital partner. Marriage has been regarded as a rite of passage that confers a social status of adulthood on an individual. Marriage also is thought of as a union of not just a man and a woman but of their families and a means to ensure the continuity of the husband's family line.
Ninety percent of women marry in their twenties, although the average age of first-time brides has increased from Traditionally, divorce was rare, but it tripled from to Traditionally, remarriages of widows were not allowed and remarriages of divorced women were difficult. However, changes are occurring in the remarriage pattern, especially for divorced women.
The ratio of a divorced woman marrying a bachelor used to be lower than that of a divorced man marrying a never-married woman. Since , however, this situation has reversed in favor of women, with a ratio of 2.
Divorced women with independent economic means, especially successful professionals, no longer face the traditional gender bias against their remarriage and can marry bachelors who are younger and less occupationally advanced. This phenomenon clearly reveals the importance of the economic aspect of marriage.
Two-generation households constituted Traditionally, three-generation stem families were patrilineally composed. That custom continues, but some couples now live with the parents of the wife. In an extended family, the housekeeping tasks usually are performed by the daughter-in-law unless she works outside the home.
Traditionally, the oldest son received a larger proportion of an inheritance than did younger sons because of his duty to coreside with aging South Gate in downtown Seoul, South Korea, provides greenspace in the urban center. After the revision of the Family Law, family inheritance must be divided equally among the sons and daughters. The children may inherit real estate, money from savings accounts, furniture, and other family heirlooms.
Outside the family, the patrilineal kin group tongjok is organized into tangnae and munjung. Consisting of all the descendants of a fourth-generation common patrilineal ancestor, the members of a tangnae participate in death-day and holiday commemoration rites of the kin group.
Munjung as a national-level organization is composed of all the patrilineal descendants of the founding ancestor and owns and manages corporate estates for conducting the annual rites to honor ancestors of the fifth generation and above at their grave sites.
The main purpose of these lineage organizations and ancestor rites is to assert gentry yangban status and reaffirm agnatic ties. Since food offerings and ritual equipment are costly, only a small number of kin groups have formal lineage organizations. The Kimhae Kim, the largest lineage, is said to have more than 3. The Hahoe Yu of the Hahoe Iltong village in Kyongsang Province are the best known example of kin groups living in the same village.
Because of rapid changes in lifestyles in the last few decades, the care of infants varies widely, depending, among other things, on the class positions of a family. Generally, during the first two years children receive great deal of affection, indulgence, and nurturing from their parents. Infants seldom are separated from their mothers.
They used to be carried on the mother's back but today may ride in baby carriages. Many parents sleep with their infants in the same room. Infant care practices encourage emotional dependence of the children on their parents. Child Rearing and Education. Obedience, cooperation, respect for the elders, and filial piety are the major values inculcated in a child's early years.
Most children receive traditional gender role socialization from early childhood. Parents go to great lengths to provide the best education for their children, especially their sons, since parents traditionally have depended on their children in old age.
Children, particularly sons, maintain a strong sense of dependence on their parents throughout adolescence and until after marriage.
The differential treatment sons and daughters receive from their parents is considered a fundamental source of the gender structure in Korean society, where women are likely to be more self-reliant and individualistic than men.
The traditional high regard for education as a means to improve one's socioeconomic status continues in contemporary Korea. The annual college entrance examinations are extremely competitive. Many unsuccessful applicants repeat the examinations in order to enter elite universities. From only nineteen institutions of higher education in , the number has increased to nine hundred fifty. Over 26 percent of men and about 13 percent of women age twenty-five and over received higher education as of Koreans are very status conscious, and their speech behavior reflects the hierarchical relationship between social actors.
Except among former classmates and other very close friends, adults do not use first names to address each other. Position titles such as "professor," "manager," "director," and "president" are used in combination with the honorific suffix nim to address a social superior. Koreans are generally courteous to the extent of being ceremonious when they interact with social superiors but can be very outgoing and friendly among friends and acquaintances of equal social status.
Their behavior with strangers in urban public situations may be characterized by indifference and self-centeredness. Koreans appear to be rude to strangers since they generally do not say a word when they accidentally push or jostle other people on the streets, and in the stores, train stations, and airports. Traditional Confucian teaching emphasized propriety in the five sets of human relationships, which included the relations between sovereign and subject, father and son, husband and wife, senior and junior, and friend and friend.
Confucianism still serves as the standard of moral and social conduct for many people. As a result of constitutional guarantees of freedom of religion, there is a wide range of religious beliefs, from shamanism, Confucianism, and Buddhism to Christianity, Islam, and other religions.
Indigenous folk beliefs and shamanism have co-evolved, sharing a fundamental belief in the existence of a myriad of gods such as the mountain gods, the house gods, and the fire god and spirits of the dead, all of which may influence people's fortunes. Korean Buddhism has both doctrinal and meditative traditions. Buddhists believe that human suffering is caused mainly by desire.
Thus, some Buddhists try to obtain enlightenment by cultivating an attitude of detachment, while others seek to fulfill their desires by offering prayers of requests to Kwanum, the Bodhisattva of Compassion. Confucianism is a political and social philosophy that emphasizes the virtues of in , usually translated as "human-heartedness," and hyo or filial piety, which is expressed through ceremony such as ancestor rites.
The Confucian concept of heaven is an impersonal yet willful force in nature and society, and is beyond human control. Early Korean Catholics who embraced Catholicism as part of Western Learning Sohak , suffered persecution during the Choson Dynasty for renouncing their ancestral rites as "pagan" rites.
Christianity, including both Catholicism and Protestantism, has become a major religion. Ch'ondogyo the Teaching of the Heavenly Way , which began as Tonghak Eastern Learning , founded by Ch'oe Che U in , is a syncretistic religion that grew on the grassroots level. Shamans derive their power from their ability to serve as a medium between the spirit world and their clients during kut shaman rituals. The Buddhist and Christian clergy derive their power from their knowledge of scripture.
Another source of power for the clergy of major religions is the wealth their churches have accumulated from the contributions of followers. The activities of the Christian clergy include not only sermons but also routine personal visits to the homes of their congregants.
Buddhist monks may perform personalized prayer services in return for monetary donations. Rituals and Holy Places. A shaman keeps a shrine where her guardian deity and the instruments for ritual services are kept. Kut , which include songs, dances, and incantations, are performed at various places to secure good fortune, cure illnesses, or guide the spirit of a deceased person to heaven.
The National Confucian Academy in Seoul holds semi-monthly and semiannual ceremonies to honor Confucius, his disciples, and other Confucian sages. Christian churches are ubiquitous in urban and rural areas. Some offer services not only on Sundays but also at predawn hours on weekdays. Leading Christian churches have huge new buildings that can accommodate several thousand worshipers. Buddhist temples used to be located away from urban centers near the mountains, but more temples are now being erected in urban areas.
Death and the Afterlife. Many Koreans believe in ancestral spirits and observe Confucian rituals concerning funerals, mourning practices, and memorial services. Folk beliefs about the afterlife are somewhat influenced by Buddhism but are characterized by diversity. Mourning periods vary, depending on the social status of the deceased, from one day to two years.
Selecting good grave sites according to geomantic principles is regarded as important for both the ancestral spirit and the descendants' Shoppers indulge in the markets and stores of the Namdaemun shopping district in downtown Seoul, South Korea.
At domestic rites performed on the eve of the death day and on major holidays, the ancestral image is that of living, dependent, and inactive parents to whom food and wine are offered. The health care system includes both Western and traditional medicine.
As a result of increasing public demand for traditional medicine, the Oriental Medicine Bureau was established in the Ministry of Health and Welfare in There were 62, Western doctors and 9, traditional doctors in Traditional doctors practice acupuncture and prescribe herbal medicine for the prevention and treatment of illness. Some people turn to a shaman for elaborate kut performance to cure illnesses attributed to evil spirits. The two most important national holidays are New Year's Day and Ch'usok which falls on the eighth full moon by the lunar calendar.
Koreans observe both solar and lunar New Year's holidays of which many people wear hanbok traditional dress , offer sebae New Year's greetings with a "big bow" to their parents, eat ttok-kuk rice-cake soup , play traditional games, and observe ancestor rites.
On Ch'usok, the harvest festival celebrations include eating special foods such as songp'yon half-moon-shaped rice cakes and making family visits to ancestral graves to tidy the tomb area and offer fruits and other foods, including steamed rice cooked with newly harvested grain. Korean classical literature was written in Chinese, and the late Koryo and early Choson sijo poems dealt mainly with the theme of loyalty. The kasa form of Choson poetry expressed individual sentiments and moral admonitions.
After the creation of the Korean alphabet, many works of fiction were written in Han'gul and royal ladies wrote novels depicting their personal situations and private thoughts. Modern literature started in the mid-nineteenth century as a result of the new Western-style education and the Korean language and literature movement. The themes of twentieth-century literature reflect the national experiences colonization, postliberation division of the homeland, the Korean War, urbanization, and industrialization.
Translations of literary works began to appear in foreign countries in the s. The novelists whose works have been most widely translated are Hwang Sun-won and Kim Tong-ri.
Traditional brush paintings include realistic landscapes; genre paintings of flowers, birds, and the daily lives of ordinary people; and calligraphic presentations of Chinese phrases extolling Confucian virtues such as filial piety and loyalty decorated with designs and pictures. Traditional sculptures in bronze, stone, and rock were inspired by Buddhism.
The Sakyamuni Buddha in the rotunda of the Sokkuram Grotto is regarded as a national masterpiece. Korean music and dance evolved over three thousand years from the religious ceremonies of shamanism and Buddhism and often were linked to the agricultural cycle. Traditional music has two genres: Chong'ak "correct music" , a genre of chamber music with a leisurely tempo and a meditative character, and minsok'ak folk music , characterized by spontaneity and emotionality.
P'ansori as a category of folk vocal music is a unique combination of singing and storytelling by a single vocalist with the accompaniment of a changgo traditional drum. The Tale of Ch'unhyang , a love story and one of the five extant traditional p'ansori compositions, requires more than eight hours to perform. Among folk instrumental music, samul nori has been the most popular form since the s.
The primarily percussive music is played on gongs made of bronze and leather and double-headed hourglass and barrel drums. Koreans also enjoy classical and popular Western music. South Korea has thirty-one symphony orchestras and has produced internationally renowned violinists such as Kyung-hwa Chung and Sarah Chang. There are two categories of traditional dance: Kut and nong-ak farmers' festival music , which combine music and dance with ritual and entertainment, continue to be popular.
Mask dances performed by villagers combined dance with satiric drama, making fun of erring officials and monks for entertainment and ethical edification. The Traditional Dance Institute of the Korean National University of Arts was established in to educate future generations in the traditional dance heritage. The Korean Advanced Institute of Science and Technology was established by the government in as a model for research-oriented universities producing scientists and engineers.
The Korean Science and Engineering Foundation and the Korea Research Foundation are the major funding agencies for university research in basic science. The Academy of Korean Studies was founded in to encourage in-depth social science and humanities studies of the heritage of the Korean nation.
Since , it has offered graduate courses in Korean studies. Echoes of the Past, Epics of Dissent: A South Korean Social Movement , Between Farm and Sea , The Zen Monastic Experience: Buddhist Practice in Contemporary Korea , The Dynamics of Korean Economic Development , Korea's Place in the Sun: A Modern History , The Korean Political Tradition and Law: Essays in Korean Law and Legal History , The Socialization of Shamans , Ancestor Worship and Korean Society , Home Was the Land of Morning Calm: A Saga of a Korean-American Family , Shamans, Housewives, and Other Restless Spirits: Women in Korean Ritual Life , Getting Married in Korea: Of Gender, Morality, and Modernity , An Ethnography of Korean Family Dispersal , The Culture of Korean Industry: An Ethnography of Poongsan Corporation , Art and Archaeology of Ancient Korea , A History from Ancient Times to , State and Society in Contemporary Korea , Korean Overseas Culture and Information Service.
A Handbook of Korea , The Politics of Korean Nationalisms , The Political Economy of South Korea , Introduction to Korean History and Culture , An Introduction to Shijo , Shima, Mutsuhiko, and Roger L. The Anthropology of Korea: East Asian Perspectives , Asian Experiences Past and Present , The Rise of the Korean Economy , 2nd ed.
Art through 5, Years , A Comparative Analysis , The Art of Korean Clothing , Culture Name South Korean. History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of the Nation. Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space Traditionally, dwellings with thatched roofs and houses with clay-tile roofs symbolized rural—urban as well as lower-class—upper-class distinctions. Food and Economy Food in Daily Life. Social Stratification Classes and Castes.
Social Welfare and Change Programs Much progress has been made in the area of social welfare since the s, especially in the health care system.
Nongovernmental Organizations and Other Associations Until the late s, civil organizations generally developed in opposition to the government and contributed to democratization. Marriage, Family, and Kinship Marriage. Etiquette Koreans are very status conscious, and their speech behavior reflects the hierarchical relationship between social actors.
Medicine and Health Care The health care system includes both Western and traditional medicine. Secular Celebrations The two most important national holidays are New Year's Day and Ch'usok which falls on the eighth full moon by the lunar calendar. The Arts and Humanities Literature. The State of the Physical and Social Sciences The Korean Advanced Institute of Science and Technology was established by the government in as a model for research-oriented universities producing scientists and engineers.
Christianity in Modern Korea , Kinship System in Korea , Women in Korean Politics , However, culture and traditional values of the region still bind these two countries with each other. The Korean language is spoken in both the countries and a similar family system is followed in both countries. Globalization has made certain changes to the family patterns and social structure, predominantly in South Korea because of its flexible policies, which is not the case with North Korean politics.
As good and old habits die hard, both the Korean countries are still deeply rooted in their culture and traditions. Influenced by the philosophical brilliance of Confucius, Koreans believe in family, community and society, unlike western ideology of individualism. Family is the most important part of Korean society and they lead a family oriented life where the father is the head of the family.
Families following Confucius and his teachings firmly believe that the father must take care of the health, shelter, food and marriage of his family members. Hierarchical structure is evident in a conventional Korean family. The eldest son will help his father in all the family matters, must obey his father and follow his decisions.
The old school says that womenfolk must not indulge in decision making and only males must handle the external affairs. However, this thinking pattern is changing with time as more and more women are emerging as leaders, business executives and teachers. Individual dreams and needs are secondary and family welfare is the first and foremost goal of every family member. Confucius and his teachings have a deep impact on Koreans and that's why they believe in duty, loyalty, honor and sincerity.
Koreans believe in sincerity and following protocols while meeting, eating, praying or even celebrating is very important. Let us have a look at different Korean etiquette in this section of the article. Bowing is equivalent to the handshake in Korean culture. Bowing means showing gratitude and respect to the person you are meeting with. The younger generations have blended the western culture with their native culture by shaking hands after bowing to each other.
Gifts have remained an integral part of their culture; however, gifts are always given according to the capacity and affordability of the other person because Koreans firmly believe in reciprocating. The quantity or numbers also add value to your gifts; seven is considered as a lucky number so anything in multiples of seven will be accepted heartily. However, they avoid giving anything that falls in the multiple value of four because Koreans consider four as an unlucky number.
Red, yellow and pink colors denote happiness and prosperity in the Korean culture. The use of white, black or green colors for wrapping is offensive and must be avoided. Korean food and drinks add flavor to their traditional lifestyle and rice malt served with kimchi is their specialty.
Cold noodles, bibimbap , bulgogi and dakgalbi are some of the world famous Korean dishes.
10 Korean customs to know before you visit Korea. Photo: Korean culture has survived for 5, years, despite the best efforts by hostile neighbors to stomp it out. If you know and respect Korean culture you will get much more out of your time in Korea. It’s definitely one of the top food experiences you need to have in South.
Korea is an Asian country deeply rooted in its culture, values and beliefs. The customs of the Korean people make them humble, honest and loyal. They believe in the teachings of Buddha and Confucius and it reflects in their daily life and lifestyle. They give importance to work and education and consider family welfare as motto of their lives.
South Korea - Daily life and social customs: The once-dominant Confucian culture—with its emphasis on respect for ancestors, age, and seniority—continues to influence Korean family, work, and social life, albeit to a lesser degree than in the past. In addition to other factors, such as economic status and position in a business hierarchy, . Koreans are reserved and well-mannered people. Learn about the full country etiquette, the customs, their culture and how to be professional in business.
Guide to South Korea and Korean culture, society, language, etiquette, manners, customs and protocol. Korea is a small peninsula located between China and Japan. As a result of the Allied victory in World War II in , Korea was divided into two sovereign states with different political ideologies: the Republic of Korea to the south and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea to the north. This ended Japan's 35 year rule of Korea.